Janet Saltzman Chafetz (1974, 35-36) describes seven areas of traditional masculinity in Western culture:
1. Physical--virile, athletic, strong, brave. Unconcerned about appearance and aging;
2. Functional--breadwinner, provider;
3. Sexual--sexually aggressive, experienced. Single status acceptable;
4. Emotional--unemotional, stoic;
5. Intellectual--logical, intellectual, rational, objective, practical,
6. Interpersonal--leader, dominating; disciplinarian; independent, individualistic (applies to western societies);
7. Other Personal Characteristics--success-oriented, ambitious; proud, egotistical (applies to some societies); , moral, trustworthy; decisive, competitive, uninhibited, adventurous.
Social scientists Deborah David and Robert Brannon give the following four rules for establishing masculinity:
1. No Sissy Stuff: anything that even remotely hints of femininity is prohibited. A real man must avoid any behavior or characteristic associated with women;
2. Be a Big Wheel: masculinity is measured by success, power, and the admiration of others. One must possess wealth, fame, and status to be considered manly;
3. Be a Sturdy Oak: manliness requires rationality, toughness, and self-reliance. A man must remain calm in any situation, show no emotion, and admit no weakness;
4. Give 'em Hell: men must exude an aura of daring and aggression, and must be willing to take risks, to "go for it" even when reason and fear suggest otherwise. Among sexually mature individuals, non-standard behaviors may be considered a sign of homosexuality.